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Functional impact of custom-made foot orthoses in patients with haemophilic ankle arthropathy.
Lobet S, Detrembleur C, Lantin AC, Haenecour L, Hermans C. Haemophilia. 2011 Dec 19.
Summary. Although foot orthoses are often prescribed to patients with haemophilia (PWH) and ankle arthropathy, the efficacy and biomechanical effects of such devices are not fully understood. We experimentally investigated the effects of orthopedic insoles (OI) and shoes (OS) in PWH presenting ankle arthropathy, with specific attention being paid to pain, spatiotemporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics of lower limb joints, as well mechanical and energetic variables. Using three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA), synchronous kinematics, kinetics, spatiotemporal, mechanics, and metabolic gait parameters were measured in 16 PWH with ankle arthropathy. The revised Foot Function Index (FFI-R) and 3DGA were determined in patients wearing neutral running shoes at two time points (T0 and T1), with OI (n = 11) or OS (n=5) being subsequently prescribed. Patients, while wearing their orthoses, were re-evaluated using 3DGA, FFI-R, and satisfaction questionnaires (T2). OI and OS provided significant pain relief and comfort improvement in more than half of the patients, with minimal side effects. OI had limited impact on gait pattern, whereas OS significantly improved the propulsive function of the ankle. Biomechanical changes induced by OI and OS were independent of their ability to improve comfort, while being insufficient to influence knee and hip kinematics and kinetics, or mechanical and energetic variables. These findings suggest that OI and OS may have beneficial effects on ankle joints in PWH. Self-reported clinical tools such as FFI-R and satisfaction questionnaires are sufficiently sensitive for assessing the efficacy of foot orthoses in PWH.