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Reconstructive surgery using interference screw fixation for painful accessory navicular in adult athletes.
Miyamoto W, Takao M, Yamada K, Yasui Y, Matsu****a T. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2012 Jun 29.
To examine the effectiveness of a new technique for reattaching the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) using a bone tunnel and interference screw after resection of the accessory navicular for painful accessory navicular (type II) in adult athletes.
Ten adult athletes (7 male, 3 female; mean age 30 years, range 23-45) underwent reconstruction using a bone tunnel with an interference screw for a painful accessory navicular. All patients complained of pain on the medial aspect of the foot after eversion sprain during sports activities and radiographs revealed type II accessory navicular. Clinical evaluation with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) before surgery was compared with that at most recent follow up (mean 30 months, range 24-39).
Mean AOFAS score improved from a preoperative 62.8 ± 2.9 points (range 61-82) to a postoperative 92.1 ± 7.0 points (range 83-100; p < 0.01). Furthermore, mean VAS score improved from a preoperative 92.5 ± 5.4 points (range 85-100) to a postoperative 4.5 ± 3.8 points (range 0-10; p < 0.01). All patients could return to full sports activity at a mean of 14 weeks (range 12-18) after surgery.
The presented technique reconstructs the bone-tendon interface of the PTT at the primary navicular with sufficient fixation after resection of the accessory navicular, which preserves the strength of the PTT in adult athletes with an intractably painful accessory navicular.
To analyze the excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular for the treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular and to evaluate its effectiveness.
Between May 2006 and June 2011, 33 patients (40 feet) with flatfoot related with accessory navicular were treated. There were 14 males (17 feet) and 19 females (23 feet) with an average age of 30.1 years (range, 16-56 years). All patients had bilateral accessory navicular; 26 had unilateral flatfoot and 7 had bilateral flatfeet. The disease duration ranged from 7 months to 9 years (median, 24 months). The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-midfoot score was 47.9 +/- 7.3. The X-ray films showed type II accessory navicular, the arch height loss, and heel valgus in all patients. All of them received excision of accessory navicular and reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular with anchor.
All patients got primary wound healing without any complication. Thirty patients (36 feet) were followed up 6-54 months with an average of 23 months. All patients achieved complete pain relief at 6 months after surgery and had good appearance of the feet. The AOFAS ankle-midfoot score was 90.4 +/- 2.0 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=29.73, P=0.00). X-ray films showed that no screw loosening or breakage was observed. There were significant differences in the arch height, calcaneus inclination angle, talocalcaneal angle, and talar-first metatarsal angle between pre-operation and last follow-up (P < 0.01).
The excision of accessory navicular with reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon insertion on navicular is a good choice for the treatment of flatfoot related with accessory navicular, with correction of deformity, excellent effectiveness, and less complications.
Outcome of modified kidner procedure with subtalar arthroereisis for painful accessory navicular associated with planovalgus deformity.
Garras DN, Hansen PL, Miller AG, Raikin SM. Foot Ankle Int. 2012 Nov;33(11):934-9.
Type II accessory naviculars are frequently associated with planovalgus deformity. Operative treatment for patients recalcitrant to nonoperative treatment involves resection, with or without takedown, and reattachment of the tibialis posterior tendon as described by Kidner. This does not address the planovalgus deformity. The authors hypothesized that adding a subtalar arthroereisis to the Kidner procedure would lead to improvement of pain and function and correction of the deformity.
Institutional Review Board-approved, prospectively collected data were reviewed for 20 patients (23 feet), who underwent a combined modified Kidner and subtalar arthroereisis for painful type II accessory navicular with planovalgus deformity recalcitrant to nonoperative treatment. The average age at the time of surgery was 18 years. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up clinically, radiographically, and via the visual analog pain scale (VAPS), the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle hindfoot score, and a satisfaction rating. Mean follow-up was 53.9 months.
The mean AOFAS scores improved from 53 preoperatively to 95 at final follow-up and the mean VAPS score decreased from 7.4 preoperatively to 1.7 at final follow-up. Radiographically, the average Meary's angle improved from 18.5° apex plantar preoperatively to 3° apex plantar on weight-bearing lateral radiographs, and the average talar head uncoverage percentage on weight-bearing anteroposterior radiographs improved from 24% preoperatively to 3%. Nineteen of 20 patients reported good or excellent results. Three patients required implant removal because of pain; no recurrence of planovalgus deformity occurred after implant removal. No patients developed subtalar arthritis.
The modified Kidner procedure combined with a subtalar arthroereisis resulted in significant pain and functional improvement. The deformity correction obtained at surgery was maintained even if the arthroereisis plug was removed. The extra-articular plug did not lead to subtalar arthritis.
Background: Recently, many studies have argued against the Kidner procedure and its several modifications, with the accessory navicular considered an irritant rather than a hindrance to foot function, and simple excision has been advocated. We designed this prospective, comparative study of simple excision and the Kidner procedure in children and adolescents with flatfoot and evaluated functional and radiographic outcomes.
Methods: From February 2004 to March 2009, we followed 50 consecutive feet of symptomatic type 2 accessory navicular. Simple excision and the Kidner procedure were performed in 25 feet each, respectively. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Midfoot Scale, the visual analogue scale (VAS), and the talo-first metatarsal, talocalcaneal, and calcaneal pitch angles were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively for a minimum of 3 years. Patient satisfaction was assessed.
Results: The preoperative AOFAS midfoot scale and VAS of each group were improved at final follow-up. The talo-first metatarsal and talocalcaneal angles were not significantly different pre- and postoperatively. However, the calcaneal pitch angle of both groups was improved at the final follow-up. At the final follow-up, we observed no significant differences between the 2 groups in the AOFAS midfoot scale, the VAS, and the talo-first metatarsal, talocalcaneal, and calcaneal pitch angles. The satisfaction frequencies were 86% and 82% in groups 1 and 2, respectively.
Conclusions: We found that in children and adolescents with accessory navicular and flatfoot, simple excision and the Kidner procedure both gave satisfactory results and both minimally restored the medial longitudinal arch similarly. Level of Evidence: Level II, prospective therapeutic study.