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Plantar pressures in diabetic patients with foot ulcers which have remained healed.
Owings TM, Apelqvist J, Stenström A, Becker M, Bus SA, Kalpen A, Ulbrecht JS, Cavanagh PR. Diabet Med. 2009 Nov;26(11):1141-6.
Aims The recurrence of foot ulcers is a significant problem in people with diabetic neuropathy. The purpose of this study was to measure in-shoe plantar pressures and other characteristics in a group of neuropathic patients with diabetes who had prior foot ulcers which had remained healed.
Methods This was an epidemiological cohort study of patients from diabetes clinics of two Swedish hospitals. From a database of 2625 eligible patients, 190 surviving patients with prior plantar ulcers of the forefoot (hallux or metatarsal heads) caused by repetitive stress were identified and 49 patients agreed to participate. Barefoot and in-shoe plantar pressures were measured during walking. Data on foot deformity, activity profiles and self-reported behaviour were also collected.
Results Mean barefoot plantar peak pressure at the prior ulcer site (556 kPa) was lower than in other published series, although the range was large (107-1192 kPa). Mean in-shoe peak pressure at this location averaged 207 kPa when measured with an insole sensor. Barefoot peak pressure only predicted approximately 35% of the variance of in-shoe peak pressure, indicating variation in the efficacy of the individual footwear prescriptions (primarily extra-depth shoes with custom insoles).
Conclusions We propose that the mean value for in-shoe pressures reported in these patients be used as a target in footwear prescription for patients with prior ulcers. Although plantar pressure is only one factor in a multifaceted strategy to prevent ulcer recurrence, the quantitative focus on pressure reduction in footwear is likely to have beneficial effects
Plantar pressure is a cause of foot ulceration in diabetes. Attempts to determine a pressure threshold have failed. The aim of this study was to determine a pedographic classification to identify patients at risk for a foot ulcer.
210 diabetics and controls categorized into 4 groups with deformities of the forefoot were analyzed. For the pedographic measurement peak pressure, force and their integrals were analyzed using a percentage and an anatomic mask. A multivariant logistic regression analysis was performed.
Logistic regression analysis using pedographic variables of a percentage mask revealed a combination of 4 variables (pressure time integral forefoot, peak pressure midfoot, pressure time integral heel, and peak pressure heel) identifying the foot ulcer with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 87%. The analysis using an anatomic mask identified 8 variables (pressure time integral mask 4 (metatarsal 2), force mask 9 (2. toe), force time integral mask 8 (great toe), peak pressure mask 6 (metatarsal 4), pressure time integral mask 6 (metatarsal 4), peak pressure mask 8 (great toe), peak pressure mask 7 (metatarsal 5), and force mask 6 (metatarsal 4)) that characterized a pedal ulcer with a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 90%.
This screening method identifies diabetics who are at risk for a foot ulcer.