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Ingrowing toenails are a common problem in which part of the nail penetrates the skinfold alongside the nail, creating a painful area. Different non-surgical and surgical interventions for ingrowing toenails are available, but there is no consensus about a standard first-choice treatment.
To evaluate the effects of non-surgical and surgical interventions in a medical setting for ingrowing toenails, with the aim of relieving symptoms and preventing regrowth of the nail edge or recurrence of the ingrowing toenail.
We updated our searches of the following databases to January 2010: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. We also updated our searches of CINAHL, WEB of SCIENCE, ongoing trials databases, and reference lists of articles.
Randomised controlled trials of non-surgical and surgical interventions for ingrowing toenails, which are also known by the terms 'unguis incarnatus' and 'onychocryptosis', and those comparing postoperative treatment options. Studies must have had a follow-up period of at least one month.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
Two authors independently selected studies, assessed methodological quality, and extracted data from selected studies. We analysed outcomes as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
This is an update of the Cochrane review 'Surgical treatments for ingrowing toenails'. In this update we included 24 studies, with a total of 2826 participants (of which 7 were also included in the previous review). Five studies were on non-surgical interventions, and 19 were on surgical interventions.The risk of bias of each included study was assessed; this is a measure of the methodological quality of several characteristics in these studies. It was found to be unclear for several items, due to incomplete reporting. Participants were not blinded to the treatment they received because of the nature of the interventions, e.g. surgery or wearing a brace on the toe. Outcome assessors were reported to be blinded in only 9 of the 24 studies.None of the included studies addressed our primary outcomes of 'relief of symptoms' or 'regrowth', but 16 did address 'recurrence'. Not all of the included studies addressed all of our secondary outcomes (healing time, postoperative complications - infection and haemorrhage, pain of operation/postoperative pain, participant satisfaction), and two studies did not address any of the secondary outcomes.Surgical interventions were better at preventing recurrence than non-surgical interventions with gutter treatment (or gutter removal), and they were probably better than non-surgical treatments with orthonyxia (brace treatment).In 4 of the 12 studies in which a surgical intervention with chemical ablation (e.g. phenol) was compared with a surgical intervention without chemical ablation, a significant reduction of recurrence was found. The surgical interventions on both sides in these comparisons were not equal, so it is not clear if the reduction was caused by the addition of the chemical ablation.In only one study, a comparison was made of a surgical intervention known as partial nail avulsion with matrix excision compared to the same surgical intervention with phenol. In this study of 117 participants, the surgical intervention with phenol was significantly more effective in preventing recurrence than the surgical intervention alone (14% compared to 41% respectively, RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.69).None of the postoperative interventions described, such as the use of antibiotics or manuka honey; povidone-iodine with paraffin; hydrogel with paraffin; or paraffin gauze, showed any significant difference when looking at infection rates, pain, or healing time.
Surgical interventions are more effective than non-surgical interventions in preventing the recurrence of an ingrowing toenail.In the studies comparing a surgical intervention to a surgical intervention with the application of phenol, the addition of phenol is probably more effective in preventing recurrence and regrowth of the ingrowing toenail. Because there is only one study in which the surgical interventions in both study arms were equal, more studies have to be done to confirm these outcomes.Postoperative interventions do not decrease the risk of postoperative infection, postoperative pain, or healing time.
PURPOSE Ingrown toenail is one of the most common nail conditions. Although many surgical treatments are described for complicated cases, recurrence of pain and postoperative disability are common. We evaluated the long-term efficacy of proximolateral matrix partial excision followed by chemical matricectomy with phenol.
METHODS We performed 348 proximolateral partial matricectomies and phenol ablations in 225 patients with stage 2 or 3 ingrown toenail. Patients were examined weekly until full wound healing was achieved and were observed for 24 months to assess the long-term efficacy of the treatment.
RESULTS Short-term results were good. We observed only 1 recurrence during the 24-month follow-up period, at 8 months. The success rate was therefore 99.7%. No severe complications occurred. Cosmetic results were remarkably good.
CONCLUSIONS Proximolateral partial matricectomy with phenol ablation is an excellent surgical method for the treatment of ingrown toenails, having low morbidity and a high success rate, even in the long term.
For decades, every year sees a wide number of articles about treatment of ingrown toenails. There is still a debate about the cause of this painful condition. Surgical treatments rely on two main approaches: either narrowing the nail plate or debulking the soft tissues. It is up to the surgeon to select the most appropriate approach in each case. All procedures cited in this article have high cure rates as long as they are properly performed. As with all surgical procedures, they are operator dependent. Chemical cautery is the easiest and most versatile technique that may help in almost all instances for lateral ingrowing. For distal embedding and very hypertrophic and exuberant lateral folds, debulking with secondary intention healing is the most effective and easy to perform, with great results.
Comparison of Effectiveness of Electrocautery and Cryotherapy in Partial Matrixectomy After Partial Nail Extraction in the Treatment of Ingrown Nails
Murat Küçüktaş, Zekayi Kutlubay, Gürkan Yardimci, Rashid Khatib, Yalçın Tüzün Dermatologic Surgery (Early View)
To determine an effective mode of therapy of ingrown nail using two different methods.
Patients with the diagnosis of stage 2 or 3 ingrown nails were included and divided into two groups. In the first group, partial matrixectomy was performed using electrocautery after partial nail extraction; in the second group, partial matrixectomy using cryotherapy was performed after partial nail extraction.
The study included 53 patients with ingrown nails. Patient ages ranged from 11 to 79 years (median 31.8 ± 16.9). No relapse was observed in 96.2% of the patients after a follow-up period of 3–12 months (n = 51). Matrixectomy in 71.7% (n = 38) of patients was successful. Matrixectomy using electrocautery was successful in 18 of 29 patients. Matrixectomy using cryotherapy was successful in 20 of 24 patients.
Matrixectomy should be added to the treatment of ingrown nails. There was no significant difference between electrocautery and cryotherapy in terms of relapse. In patients with advanced stages of ingrown nails, partial nail extraction combined with matrixectomy using cryotherapy is an effective method of treatment.
Operative Technique with Rapid Recovery for Ingrown Nails with Granulation Tissue Formation in Childhood
Claudio I. Perez et al Dermatologic Surgery; Early View
Ingrown toenail is a common disease that causes pain and discomfort. There are conservative and surgical treatments, but many have the drawbacks of recurrence and long recovery time.
To analyze for the first time the results of a technique called nail splinting using a flexible tube secured using a suture (FTSS) performed on a series of patients with ingrown toenails.
Methods and Materials
A retrospective descriptive study of 71 pediatric patients operated on using the FTSS technique between 2001 and 2009 was performed. The data were collected using medical record review or telephone survey. The main outcomes were high percentage of success and shorter recovery time than with partial matrix excision.
Sixty-two patients (87.3%) were cured using a single procedure, with an average follow-up of 13.1 months. Recurrence occurred in nine patients (12.6%); three required the classic technique with resection of the matrix and nail bed plastic surgery, and in 6, FTSS was repeated with good results.
Flexible tube secured using a suture has a lower recurrence rate than matricectomy. Additional advantages are the speed with which complaints can be monitored and quick return to school because recovery may be as short as 48 hours.