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Innovation Report are carrying this story: Mental Health Linked to Amputation Risk in Diabetic Veterans
For U.S. veterans with diabetes, lower scores on a test of mental health functioning are associated with an increased risk of major amputations, reports a study in the November/December issue of the journal General Hospital Psychiatry.
"Our findings suggest that foot care programs need to assess individuals for mental health functioning as a risk factor and to develop appropriate interventions to counteract this higher risk of major amputation," write the study authors, led by Chin-Lin Tseng, Dr.P.H., of the VA New Jersey Health Care System, East Orange, N.J.
Dr. Tseng and colleagues analyzed a database of nearly 115,000 patients with diabetes who received care at Veterans Health Administration clinics from 1998 to 2000. All of the veterans were asked to complete a measure of mental health functioning.
Scores for mental health functioning were evaluated as a risk factor for diabetes-related amputations of the foot and leg. During 2000, "major" amputations (ankle or above) were required in 450 patients, while 431 underwent "minor" amputations (toes to ankle).
Veterans with lower scores for mental health functioning were at increased risk for amputations. This was so even when other important risk factors—including poor control of diabetes, smoking, less-frequent health care, and obesity—were taken into account. The overall rate of major amputations was 0.5 percent in veterans with below-average mental health scores, compared to 0.3 percent in those with above average scores and 0.2 percent for those at the highest level of mental health functioning.
On analysis including all risk factors, each five-point increase in mental health score was associated with a five percent decrease in the risk of major amputations. After adjustment, mental health functioning was no longer a significant risk factor for minor amputations.
Mental health scores were higher for veterans who had above a high school education, who were not obese, and who were not considered poor.
Amputations are a major complication of diabetes. Most studies of amputation risk factors have focused on medical conditions—for example, foot problems such as ulcers or infections or control of diabetes. Although some research has suggested that mental health care may affect the risk of diabetes-related amputations, the new study is the first to address this issue directly.
The results suggest that poor mental health functioning is an important risk factor for major amputations in diabetic veterans. Although the study cannot prove any cause-and-effect relationship, Dr. Tseng and colleagues believe that problems with mental health may interfere with needed diabetes care, including foot care.
The researchers urge medical professionals and patients to be aware of the possible link between mental health and amputation risk. They conclude, "Identifying patients who are at higher risk for major amputations due to poor mental health functioning may allow the dedication of resources and services to more closely supervise and manage their podiatric needs, perhaps leading to fewer amputations."
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between mental health functioning and lower extremity amputations (LEAs) in veterans with diabetes.
A retrospective study of 1999 Large Veteran Health Survey (LVHS) respondents with diabetes who were Veterans Health Administration clinic users in fiscal years (FYs) 1998–2000 was performed. The outcome measure was type of LEAs (major, minor and none) in FY 2000. The primary independent variable was mental health functioning [adapted Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 mental component summary (MCS) score, with higher being better] from the LVHS. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between MCS score and LEAs, adjusting for control variables derived from FY 1999.
Of the 114,890 individuals included in the study, there were 450 (3.9 per 1000 individuals) major and 431 (3.8 per 1000 individuals) minor LEAs in FY 2000. Individuals with major and minor LEAs had lower mean MCS scores than those without LEAs (39.9, 42.2 and 43.4). After controlling for other independent variables, a five-point increase in MCS score was associated with a 5% decrease in the risk of major LEAs (odds ratio [OR]=0.95; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=[0.94, 0.96]) but was not related to minor LEAs (OR=1.01; 95% CI=[0.97, 1.05]).
Conclusion Footcare programs need to assess individuals for mental health functioning as a risk factor and to develop appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of major amputation.
Re: Mental health issues linked to diabetes amputations
An exploratory phenomenological study exploring the experiences of people with systemic disease who have undergone lower limb amputation and its impact on their psychological well-being
Elaine D Washington, Anita E Williams Prosthet Orthot Int November 18, 2014
Background: Amputation is a life-changing event accompanied by challenges for the affected person with time-dependent depression often used to quantify its level of impact on their psychological well-being. There are varied factors that contribute to this and its persistence. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences over time of people with diabetes and/or peripheral vascular disease following an amputation and the impact on their psychological well-being.
Objectives: To develop an understanding of the experience of living with an amputation and a chronic condition in order to help clinicians identify those in need of counselling support.
Study design: A qualitative study utilising an iterative approach in line with the philosophy of interpretive phenomenology.
Methods: Six participants who had experienced a lower limb amputation associated with peripheral vascular disease/diabetes were interviewed on two occasions (baseline and 4 months). An interpretative phenomenological approach was utilised for both data collection and analysis.
Results: For these participants, amputation was part of the chronology of their chronic disease. It was the individual’s variable experience of health which impacted their psychological well-being rather than the length of time since amputation.
Conclusions: The multivariable experience of amputation means that individually tailored counselling/psychological support is recommended.
Clinical relevance An understanding of how the experience of living with an amputation and a chronic condition may change over time will help clinicians to identify the ongoing need for counselling support.