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The impact maximum and rearfoot eversion have been used as indicators of load on internal structures in running. The midsole hardness of a typical running shoe was varied systematically to determine the relationship between external ground reaction force (GRF), in-shoe force, and kinematic variables. Eight subjects were tested during overground running at 4 m/s. Rearfoot movement as well as in-shoe forces and external GRF varied nonsystematically with midsole hardness. Kinematic parameters such as knee flexion and foot velocity at touchdown (TD), also varied nonsystematically with altered midsole hardness. Results demonstrate that considerable variations of in-shoe loading occur that were not depicted by external GRF measurements alone. Individuals apparently use different strategies of mechanical and neuromuscular adaptation in response to footwear modifications. In conclusion, shoe design effects on impact forces or other factors relating to injuries depend on the individual and therefore cannot be generalized.