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Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

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  #1  
Old 1st July 2013, 10:55 AM
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Default Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

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Alterations of Neuromuscular Function after the World's Most Challenging Mountain Ultra-Marathon
Jonas Saugy, Nicolas Place, Guillaume Y. Millet, Francis Degache, Federico Schena, Grégoire P. Millet
PLoS ONE 8(6): e65596. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065596
Quote:
We investigated the physiological consequences of the most challenging mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) in the world: a 330-km trail run with 24000 m of positive and negative elevation change. Neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) was assessed before (Pre-), during (Mid-) and after (Post-) the MUM in experienced ultra-marathon runners (n = 15; finish time = 122.43 hours ±17.21 hours) and in Pre- and Post- in a control group with a similar level of sleep deprivation (n = 8). Blood markers of muscle inflammation and damage were analyzed at Pre- and Post-. Mean ± SD maximal voluntary contraction force declined significantly at Mid- (−13±17% and −10±16%, P<0.05 for knee extensor, KE, and plantar flexor muscles, PF, respectively), and further decreased at Post- (−24±13% and −26±19%, P<0.01) with alteration of the central activation ratio (−24±24% and −28±34% between Pre- and Post-, P<0.05) in runners whereas these parameters did not change in the control group. Peripheral NMF markers such as 100 Hz doublet (KE: −18±18% and PF: −20±15%, P<0.01) and peak twitch (KE: −33±12%, P<0.001 and PF: −19±14%, P<0.01) were also altered in runners but not in controls. Post-MUM blood concentrations of creatine kinase (3719±3045 Ul·1), lactate dehydrogenase (1145±511 UI·L−1), C-Reactive Protein (13.1±7.5 mg·L−1) and myoglobin (449.3±338.2 µg·L−1) were higher (P<0.001) than at Pre- in runners but not in controls. Our findings revealed less neuromuscular fatigue, muscle damage and inflammation than in shorter MUMs. In conclusion, paradoxically, such extreme exercise seems to induce a relative muscle preservation process due likely to a protective anticipatory pacing strategy during the first half of MUM and sleep deprivation in the second half.
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Old 1st July 2013, 11:17 AM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

Press Release:
Sleep deprivation, pacing protect runners' muscles in 200-mile long mountain race
Less muscle damage, fatigue in 200-mile Alpine race than in 100-mile race
Quote:
Runners who complete one of the world's most challenging ultra-marathons experience less neuromuscular fatigue, muscle damage and inflammation compared to those who run distances half to one quarter as long, according to the results of research published June 26 in the open access journal PLOS ONE by Jonas Saugy and colleagues from the University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

The researchers tested the effects of sleep deprivation as well as blood and muscle markers of inflammation in runners who completed the Tor des Geants, an over 200-mile mountain ultramarathon with 24,000 m of elevation changes. Compared to participants at a shorter Alpine ultra-marathon approximately 103 miles in length, runners at Tor des Geants had fewer alterations in neuromuscular functions and lower levels of muscle damage and inflammation, despite running nearly double the distance. The authors suggest that protective pacing strategies employed by these runners in the first half of the race, combined with sleep deprivation effects in the second half may induce a relative muscle preservation process.
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Old 1st January 2014, 07:54 PM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

12-hour ultra-marathons - Increasing worldwide participation and dominance of Europeans
Edis Sehovic, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann
The JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE Vol 8, No 4 (2013)
Quote:
Ultra-marathon running is of increasing popularity. Participation and performance trends in ultra-marathons have been previously investigated for 100 mile runs, multi-stage ultra-marathons, triathlons and ultra-triathlons, but not for 12-hour runs. We examined participation and performance trends in 12-hour runs held all over the world. Gender, nationality and age in runners competing in 12-hour runs worldwide from 1981 to 2010 were investigated. The annual number of participants in 12-hour runs increased significantly over time for athletes originating from Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania (P < 0.05). Most of the runners participated in races taking place in the USA and also the most runners originated from the USA, which was followed alternately by Germany and France. Top ten European runners achieved the longest running distances with an average of 134.7±1.9 km for women and 155.8±2.5 km for men, facing the top three nations Russia, Germany and Japan with 130.7±2.6 km and 154.1±3.4 km, 131.8±3.5 km and 146.8±4.1km, 132.1±4.3 km and 144.9±1.3 km for the top ten women and men, respectively. To summarize, participation in 12-hour runs increased in the last 30 years. Europe was the continent with the highest annual number of participants and where the most runners came from. European top ten runners achieved the best performances. Future studies about 12-hour runs need to investigate up to what extent participation and performance trends depend on aspects like age, training, anthropometry, nutrition, experience, and weather.
- See more at: http://www.jhse.ua.es/jhse/article/v....ccQucc8L.dpuf
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Old 8th January 2014, 05:55 PM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

From latest Scientific American:
What Ultramarathons do to the Body
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Old 9th January 2014, 05:21 PM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

Ultramarathons: Is running 100 miles bad for your health?

Ultramarathoners are Healthy, But Frequently Injured
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Old 22nd February 2014, 11:04 AM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

Health and Exercise-Related Medical Issues among 1,212 Ultramarathon Runners: Baseline Findings from the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA) Study
Martin D. Hoffman, Eswar Krishnan
PLOS ONE 10.1371/journal.pone.0083867
Quote:
Regular exercise is associated with substantial health benefits; however, little is known about the health impact of extreme levels of exercise. This study examined the prevalence of chronic diseases, health-care utilization, and risk factors for exercise-related injuries among ultramarathon runners. Retrospective, self-reported enrollment data from an ongoing longitudinal observational study of 1,212 active ultramarathon runners were analyzed. The most prevalent chronic medical conditions were allergies/hay fever (25.1%) and exercise-induced asthma (13.0%), but there was a low prevalence of serious medical issues including cancers (4.5%), coronary artery disease (0.7%), seizure disorders (0.7%), diabetes (0.7%), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (0.2%). In the year preceding enrollment, most (64.6%) reported an exercise-related injury that resulted in lost training days (median of 14 days), but little nonattendance of work or school due to illness, injury, or exercise-related medical conditions (medians of 0 days for each). The knee was the most common area of exercise-related injury. Prior year incidence of stress fractures was 5.5% with most (44.5%) involving the foot. Ultramarathon runners who sustained exercise-related injuries were younger (p<0.001) and less experienced (p<0.01) than those without injury. Stress fractures were more common (p<0.01) among women than men. We conclude that, compared with the general population, ultramarathon runners appear healthier and report fewer missed work or school days due to illness or injury. Ultramarathon runners have a higher prevalence of asthma and allergies than the general population, and the prevalence of serious medical issues was nontrivial and should be recognized by those providing medical care to these individuals. Ultramarathon runners, compared with shorter distance runners, have a similar annual incidence of exercise-related injuries but higher proportion of stress fractures involving the foot, and it is the younger and less experienced ultramarathoners who appear most at risk for injury.
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Old 12th March 2014, 08:32 PM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

IMPACT OF INJURY PATTERN DURING TRAINING ON ULTRAMARATHON PERFORMANCE
M Khodaee, J Spittler, JC Hill, MD Hoffman
Br J Sports Med 2014;48:619 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2014-093494.160
Abstracts from the IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, Monaco 2014

Quote:
Background Little is known about the effect of injuries during training on ultramarathon performance.

Objective Determine effects of injuries during training on race performance.

Design Observational study using a self-administered pre-race survey. Finish times were obtained from race results posted online.

Setting The 2013 Leadville Trail 100 (LT100) and Western States Endurance Run (WSER).

Participants Participants of LT100 and WSER 161 km ultramarathons.

Risk factor assessment Age, gender, educational level, prior completion of a 161 km ultramarathon, shoe type, self-report of foot strike pattern, and injuries or illnesses interfering with training in the past year were considered.

Main outcome measurements The primary outcome measure was whether sustaining an injury or illness resulting in missed training days affected successful completion of an ultramarathon.

Results Out of 1206 LT100 and 408 WSER entrants, 893 and 368 completed the pre-race survey (73.9% and 90.1%, respectively). Most participants were male (82%) with average age of 41 years. 52.3% of LT100 and 72.3% of WSER starters finished the races under the 30 hour cutoff time. Among respondents, 40% had masters or higher degrees and 45% reported using dietary supplements on a regular basis. Respondents reported 1432 (multiple answers per runner) injury episodes causing less than a week of missed training and 641 injury episodes causing a week or longer of missed training in the past year. Pain in Achilles (n=196), lower iliotibial band (n=164), upper hamstring (n=115), and groin pain (n=106) were the most common reported issues interfering with training. Only 45 (2.8%) of respondents reported sustaining a stress fracture during training in the past year. Of these, 27 (60%) involved the metatarsals and 10 (22%) involved the tibia. Using a binary logistic regression model, sustaining an injury during the training, age, gender, educational level, prior completion of a 161 km ultramarathon, shoe type, and self-report of foot strike pattern did not affect finish status (P>.05).

Conclusions Many ultramarathon runners sustain injuries and illnesses interfering with training schedule, but this does not seem to be a predictor of successfully completing the race.
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Old 12th March 2014, 08:34 PM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

REASONS FOR INABILITY TO COMPLETE ULTRAMARATHONS: A MULTICENTER STUDY
M Khodaee, J Spittler, P Basset, K Vanbaak, JC Hill, I San Millán, MD Hoffman
Br J Sports Med 2014;48:618-619 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2014-093494.159
Abstracts from the IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, Monaco 2014
Quote:
Background Despite increased ultramarathon participation in recent years, little is known about causes of race incompletion. This study surveyed runners of three 161–168 km ultramarathons in Europe and North America to explore characteristics and issues that affected race performance.

Objective Determine human and environmental factors related to failure to complete ultramarathons of ∼161 km in the previous year.

Design Observational study using surveys prior to the race.

Setting The 2013 Ultra-Trail du Mont-Blanc® (UTMB®) in Europe; Leadville Trail 100 (LT100) and Western States Endurance Run (WSER) in North America.

Participants Out of 4 110 race entrants, 2 794 (69%) completed the pre-race survey.

Risk factor assessment In this epidemiologic study, we report the incidence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to failure to finish of at least one ∼161 km race in the previous year.

Main outcome measurements The main outcome measurements were self-reported reasons for not finishing the race.

Results Among respondents, about 30% had masters or higher degrees. Out of 2,469 UTMB®, 1206 LT 100, and 408 WSER entrants, the majority successfully completed the race (68%, 52% and 72%, respectively). Among participants who responded, 18.3% reported they failed to complete an ultramarathon of ∼161km in the past year. The main reasons for dropping out were inability to make the cut off time (23.1%), nausea and/or vomiting (16.5%), injury during the race (16.5%), and an ongoing injury (13.3%).

Conclusions We conclude that primary performance-limiting issues in 161–168 km ultramarathons include inability to make the cut off time, nausea and/or vomiting, and injury before and during the race.
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Old 22nd March 2014, 05:38 AM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

A Prospective Cohort Study of Acute Kidney Injury in Multi-stage Ultramarathon Runners: The Biochemistry in Endurance Runner Study (BIERS).
Lipman GS, Krabak BJ, Waite BL, Logan SB, Menon A, Chan GK.
Res Sports Med. 2014;22(2):185-92. doi: 10.1080/15438627.2014.881824.
Quote:
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during a multi-stage ultramarathon foot race. A prospective observational study was taken during the Gobi 2008; Sahara 2008; and Namibia 2009 RacingThePlanet 7-day, 6-stage, 150-mile foot ultramarathons. Blood was analyzed before, and immediately after stage 1 (25 miles), 3 (75 miles), and 5 (140 miles). Creatinine (Cr), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and incidence of AKI were calculated and defined by RIFLE criteria. Thirty participants (76% male, mean age 40 + 11 years) were enrolled. There were significant declines in GFR after each stage compared with the pre-race baseline (p < 0.001), with the majority of participants (55-80%) incurring AKI. The majority of study participants encountered significant renal impairment; however, no apparent cumulative effect was observed, with resolution of renal function to near baseline levels between stages.
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Old 22nd April 2014, 02:27 PM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

Medical Services at Ultra-Endurance Foot Races in Remote Environments: Medical Issues and Consensus Guidelines.
Hoffman MD, Pasternak A, Rogers IR, Khodaee M, Hill JC, Townes DA, Scheer BV, Krabak BJ, Basset P, Lipman GS.
Sports Med. 2014 Apr 19.
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An increasing participation in ultra-endurance foot races is cause for greater need to ensure the presence of appropriate medical care at these events. Unique medical challenges result from the extreme physical demands these events place on participants, the often remote settings spanning broad geographical areas, and the potential for extremes in weather conditions and various environmental hazards. Medical issues in these events can adversely affect race performance, and there is the potential for the presentation of life-threatening issues such as exercise-associated hyponatremia, severe altitude illnesses, and major trauma from falls or animal attacks. Organization of a medical support system for ultra-endurance foot races starts with a determination of the level of medical support that is appropriate and feasible for the event. Once that is defined, various legal considerations and organizational issues must be addressed, and medical guidelines and protocols should be developed. While there is no specific or universal standard of medical care for ultra-endurance foot races since a variety of factors determine the level and type of medical services that are appropriate and feasible, the minimum level of services that each event should have in place is a plan for emergency transport of injured or ill participants, pacers, spectators and event personnel to local medical facilities.
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Old 29th April 2014, 04:43 AM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

Factors Affecting Energy Cost Of Running During An Ultra-endurance Race
Stefano Lazzer, Paolo Taboga, Desy Salvadego, Enrico Rejc, Bostjan Simunic, Marco V. Narici, Antonio Buglione, Nicola Giovanelli, Guglielmo Antonutto, Bruno Grassi, Rado Pisot, Pietro E. di Prampero.
Presented at ACSM Mtg; May 2014
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PURPOSE: to investigate: 1) the role of V'O2max, fraction of it (F) and energy cost of running (Cr) in determining performance during an ultra-endurance competition and 2) the effects of the race on several biomechanical and morphological parameters of the lower limbs that are likely to affect Cr.

METHODS: Eleven runners (age: 29-54 years) participated in an ultra-endurance competition consisting of three running stages of 25, 55 and 13 km on three consecutive days. Anthropometric characteristics, body composition, morphological properties of the gastrocnemius medialis, maximal explosive power of the lower limb and V'O2max were determined before the competition. In addition, biomechanics of running and Cr was determined, before and immediately after each running stage.

RESULTS: Performance was directly proportional to V'O2max (r=0.77), and F (r=0.36) and inversely proportional to Cr (r=-0.30). Low Cr values were significantly related to high maximal power of the lower limbs (r=-0.74), vertical stiffness (r=-0.65); and low foot-print index (FPI, r=0.70), step frequency (r=0.62) and external work (r=0.60). About 50% of the increase in Cr during the stages of the competition was accounted for by changes in FPI, which represents a global evaluation of medio-lateral displacement of the foot during the whole stance phase, which in turn are associated with the myotendinous characteristics of the lower limb.

CONCLUSIONS: lower Cr values were related to greater muscular power and lower FPI, suggesting that a better ankle stability is likely to achieve better performance in ultra endurance running competition.
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Old 21st August 2014, 02:04 PM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

Biochemical cartilage alteration and unexpected signal recovery in T2* mapping observed in ankle joints with mobile MRI during a transcontinental multistage footrace over 4486 km
U.H.W. Schütz, M.D, J. Ellermann, D. Schossemail, H. Wiedelbach, M. Beer, C. Billich
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Articles in Press
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Objective
The effect of ultra-long distance running on the ankle cartilage with regard to biochemical changes, thickness and lesions is examined in the progress of a transcontinental ultramarathon over 4,486km.

Method
In an observational field study, repeated follow-up scanning of 22 participants of the TransEurope FootRace with a 1.5 Tesla MRI mounted on a mobile unit was performed. For quantitative biochemical and structural evaluation of cartilage a (FLASH) T2* weighted GRE-, a TRIM- and a fat-saturated PD-weighted sequence were utilized. Statistical analysis of cartilage T2* and thickness changes was obtained on the 13 finishers (12 male, mean age 45.4 years, BMI 23.5 kg/m²). None of the 9 non-finisher (8 male, mean age 53.8 years, BMI 23.4 kg/m²) stopped the race due to ankle problems.

Results
From a mean of 17.0ms for tibial plafond and 18.0ms for talar dome articular cartilage at baseline, nearly all observed ROIs of the ankle joint cartilage showed a significant T2*-signal increase (25.6% in mean), with standard error ranging from 19% to 33% within the first 2,500km of the ultra-marathon. This initial signal behavior was followed by a signal decrease. This signal recovery (30.6% of initial increase) showed a large effect size. No significant morphological or cartilage thickness changes (at baseline 2.9mm) were observed.

Conclusion
After initial T2*-increase during the first 2,000-2,500km, a subsequent T2*-decrease indicates the ability of the normal cartilage matrix to partially regenerate under ongoing multistage ultramarathon burden in the ankle joints.
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Old 11th September 2014, 05:43 PM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

Intensity Profile during an Ultra-endurance Triathlon in Relation to Testing and Performance
A. Barrero, D. Chaverri, P. Erola, X. Iglesias, F. A. Rodríguez
Int J Sports Med
Quote:
We examined the heart rate (HR)-based intensity profile during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET) estimated from the individual HR-oxygen uptake (˙VO2) relationship during specific graded tests, relating it to race performance. 9 male ultra-endurance triathletes completed the study. Before racing, subjects performed graded exercise tests involving cycle (C) ergometry, treadmill running (R) and free swimming (S) for peak ˙VO2 and HR at ventilatory thresholds (VT). Exercise-specific HR-˙VO2 regression equations were developed. Mean race HR was higher during S (149.2 (10.1) bpm) than during C (137.1 (5.7) bpm) and R (136.2 (10.5) bpm). During C and R, HR was below both VT (11% and 27–28%). HR differences between S and C correlated with C, R and final times. The greatest differences between S and C were related to the worst times in the next stages. These ultra-endurance triathletes performed S at a higher relative intensity, which was inversely correlated with performance in the following stages. The best predictors of final racing time (81%) were weight-adjusted ˙VO2max and HR difference between C and S. A more adequate characterization of the time pattern during the whole race, especially during S, adds new information concerning the intensity profile and cardiovascular demands of an UET race.
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Old 2nd October 2014, 11:24 PM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

The Enemy of the Feet. Blisters in Ultraendurance Runners
Bernd Volker Scheer, Dejan Reljic, Andrew Murray, and Ricardo Jose Soures Costa
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association: September 2014, Vol. 104, No. 5, pp. 473-478.
Quote:
Background: Blisters are the most common dermatologic problem in ultraendurance runners. Their incidence, localization, pain scores, and risk factors in field conditions are poorly understood.

Methods: We conducted an observational field-based cohort study during the 5-day multistage 2010 and 2011 Al Andalus Ultimate Trail (219 km). Daily postrace data on blister frequency, localization, severity, and preventive measures from 50 ultramarathon runners were collected through the direct interview technique.

Results: After 4 days of running (182 km), blisters occurred in 76% of the participants (P < .001 versus stage 1) compared with 34% after day 1, 54% after day 2, and 72% after day 3 (P < .001 versus stage 1). Most of the blisters formed on the toes (65%) (P < .001), followed by blisters on other locations of the foot: the ball of the foot (16%), heel (14%), and sole (5%). Blisters were more painful toward the end of the race, and those on the sole and heel tended to be the most painful, although this did not reach statistical significance. Prophylactic measures studied (type and fabric of socks; application of antiperspirants, talcum powder, or lubricant to feet; and prophylactic taping) did not show any reduction in blister rates. The only predictive marker for reduced blister incidence was previous ultramarathon experience in men (r = −0.44, P < .05).

Conclusions: Blisters are extremely common in multistage ultramarathon races. Race experience in male ultramarathon runners is associated with reduced blister rates.
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Old 23rd January 2015, 03:59 PM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

Performance differences between sexes in 50-mile to 3,100-mile ultramarathons
Zingg MA, Knechtle B, Rosemann T, Rüst CA
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine » Volume 6 22 January 2015
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Anecdotal reports have assumed that women would be able to outrun men in long-distance running. The aim of this study was to test this assumption by investigating the changes in performance difference between sexes in the best ultramarathoners in 50-mile, 100-mile, 200-mile, 1,000-mile, and 3,100-mile events held worldwide between 1971 and 2012. The sex differences in running speed for the fastest runners ever were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with subsequent Tukey–Kramer posthoc analysis. Changes in sex difference in running speed of the annual fastest were analyzed using linear and nonlinear regression analyses, correlation analyses, and mixed-effects regression analyses. The fastest men ever were faster than the fastest women ever in 50-mile (17.5%), 100-mile (17.4%), 200-mile (9.7%), 1,000-mile (20.2%), and 3,100-mile (18.6%) events. For the ten fastest finishers ever, men were faster than women in 50-mile (17.1%±1.9%), 100-mile (19.2%±1.5%), and 1,000-mile (16.7%±1.6%) events. No correlation existed between sex difference and running speed for the fastest ever (r2=0.0039, P=0.91) and the ten fastest ever (r2=0.15, P=0.74) for all distances. For the annual fastest, the sex difference in running speed decreased linearly in 50-mile events from 14.6% to 8.9%, remained unchanged in 100-mile (18.0%±8.4%) and 1,000-mile (13.7%±9.1%) events, and increased in 3,100-mile events from 12.5% to 16.9%. For the annual ten fastest runners, the performance difference between sexes decreased linearly in 50-mile events from 31.6%±3.6% to 8.9%±1.8% and in 100-mile events from 26.0%±4.4% to 24.7%±0.9%. To summarize, the fastest men were ~17%–20% faster than the fastest women for all distances from 50 miles to 3,100 miles. The linear decrease in sex difference for 50-mile and 100-mile events may suggest that women are reducing the sex gap for these distances.
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Old 18th May 2015, 11:51 AM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

hat tip to Guy Leahy:
Why Older Runners Are Ultrarunners
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Old 5th October 2015, 12:18 PM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

From Alex Hutchinson @ Runners World:
What Makes an Ultramarathoner?
To go longer than 26.2, sacrifice efficiency to avoid muscle damage.
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Old 29th October 2015, 05:26 PM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

Feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance triathlete: a case study.
Knechtle B, Zingg MA, Knechtle P, Rosemann T, R?st CA
Int J Gen Med. 2015 Oct 13;8:325-32. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S94542. eCollection 2015.
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Recent studies investigating ultraendurance athletes showed an association between excessive fluid intake and swelling of the lower limbs such as the feet. To date, this association has been investigated in single-stage ultraendurance races, but not in multistage ultraendurance races. In this case study, we investigated a potential association between fluid intake and feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance race such as a Deca Iron ultratriathlon with ten Ironman triathlons within 10 consecutive days. A 49-year-old well-experienced ultratriathlete competed in autumn 2013 in the Deca Iron ultratriathlon held in Lonata del Garda, Italy, and finished the race as winner within 129:33 hours:minutes. Changes in body mass (including body fat and lean body mass), foot volume, total body water, and laboratory measurements were assessed. Food and fluid intake during rest and competing were recorded, and energy and fluid turnovers were estimated. During the ten stages, the volume of the feet increased, percentage body fat decreased, creatinine and urea levels increased, hematocrit and hemoglobin values decreased, and plasma [Na(+)] remained unchanged. The increase in foot volume was significantly and positively related to fluid intake during the stages. The poststage volume of the foot was related to poststage total body water, poststage creatinine, and poststage urea. This case report shows that the volume of the foot increased during the ten stages, and the increase in volume was significantly and positively related to fluid intake during the stages. Furthermore, the poststage volume of the foot was related to poststage total body water, poststage creatinine, and poststage urea. The continuous feet swelling during the race was most probably due to a combination of a high fluid intake and a progressive decline in renal function (ie, continuous increase in creatinine and urea), leading to body fluid retention (ie, increase in total body water).
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Old 27th January 2016, 01:36 PM
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Default Re: Ultramarathons Cause Less Damage Than Shorter Races

The Reason People Run Ridiculous Distances Has Little to Do With Physical Fitness
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