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Analysis of foot structure in athletes sustaining proximal fifth metatarsal stress fracture.
Hetsroni I, Nyska M, Ben-Sira D, Mann G, Segal O, Maoz G, Ayalon M. Foot Ankle Int. 2010 Mar;31(3):203-11.
BACKGROUND: In the past, several studies provided anecdotal descriptions of high-arched feet in individuals sustaining proximal fifth metatarsal stress fractures. This relationship has never been supported by scientific evidence. Our objective was to examine whether athletes who sustained this injury had an exceptional static foot structure or dynamic loading pattern. MATERIALS AND
METHODS: Ten injured professional soccer players who regained full professional activity following a unilateral proximal fifth metatarsal stress fracture and ten control soccer players were examined. Independent variables included static evaluation of foot and arch structure, followed by dynamic plantar foot pressure evaluation. Each variable was compared between injured, contra-lateral uninjured, and control feet.
RESULTS: Static measurements of foot and arch structure did not reveal differences among the groups. However, plantar pressure evaluation revealed relative unloading of the fourth metatarsal in injured and uninjured limbs of injured athletes compared with control, while the fifth metatarsal revealed pressure reduction only in the injured limbs of injured athletes.
CONCLUSION: Athletes who sustained proximal fifth metatarsal stress fracture were not characterized by an exceptional static foot structure. Dynamically, lateral metatarsal unloading during stance may either play a role in the pathogenesis of the injury, or alternately represent an adaptive process.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Footwear fabrication for previously injured athletes should not categorically address cushioning properties designed for high-arch feet, but rather focus on individual dynamic evaluation of forefoot loading, with less attention applied to static foot and arch characteristics
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical results of modified tension band wiring using two cortical screws for the treatment of fifth metatarsal stress fractures.
METHODS: Forty-two patients with Torg's type I and II fifth metatarsal stress fractures treated using the modified tension band wiring technique from 2005 to 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. All of the patients were elite athletes.
RESULTS: The mean length of follow-up was 26 ± 16 months (12-62 months). All patients were able to return to their previous levels of sporting activity. The mean time to union as determined by CT was 75 ± 25 days (40-150 days). However, during follow-up, there were 4 delayed unions, 1 nonunion, and 4 refractures.
CONCLUSION: The described modified tension band wiring technique is a good alternative method for the surgical treatment of Torg's type I and II fifth metatarsal stress fractures.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Case series with no comparison group, retrospective case series, Level IV.
Background: There have been diverse results, even in the same Torg type classification, in cases with fifth metatarsal stress fracture.
Hypothesis: The “plantar gap” is correlated with the time for bone union and complications. It might be used for a prognostic factor.
Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.
Methods: Seventy-five cases with a fifth metatarsal stress fracture treated with modified tension band wiring from January 2003 to December 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. This consecutive series of patients included 71 male and 2 female patients with a mean of 19.8 years of age at the time of surgery. All of the enrolled patients were elite-level athletes. Each case was classified according to Torg classification and the degree of plantar gap was also measured. After the surgery, bone union was determined by computed tomography findings. Statistical analysis of the Torg classification and time for bone union, as well as plantar gap and time for bone union, was performed.
Results: The mean time for bone union for each Torg type was 71.05 ± 21.77 days for type I, 104.48 ± 54.62 days for type II, and 122.92 ± 51.75 days for type III. There was a significant difference in the time for bone union among the 3 Torg types (P = .008). The mean time for bone union in group A (plantar gap <1 mm) was 71.21 ± 29.95 days and it was 126.4 ± 51.99 days for group B (plantar gap ≥1 mm) (significantly different; P < .001). In addition, there was a positive correlation of the time for bone union with the degree of plantar gap (ρ = .661, P < .001). In cases with Torg type II classification, there was a significant difference in the time for bone union between groups A and B (P < .001) In addition, there was a strong correlation between the time for bone union and the degree of plantar gap (ρ = .657, P < .001). There were 8 cases of nonunion in Torg type II, and 1 case in Torg III. With regard to the plantar gap, there was 1 case of nonunion in group A, and 8 cases in group B.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the plantar gap might be used for prognosis in cases with a fifth metatarsal stress fracture, even in patients with the same Torg classification.
Correlation between foot structure and stress fracture risk has not been adequately evaluated or proven. The purpose of this study was to compare foot structure in fracture cases versus control with respect to radiological parameters in stress fractures of the fifth metatarsal.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study group consisted of 50 consecutive athletes with a diagnosis of fifth metatarsal stress fracture and a control group matched for sport type and age. Fifth metatarsophalangeal (MTP-5) angle, fourth-fifth intermetatarsal (IMA4-5) angle, fifth metatarsal lateral deviation (MT5-LD) angle were measured on standing antero-posterior (AP) radiographs. Talo first metatarsal (T-MT1) angle, talo-calcaneal (TC) angle, and calcaneal pitch (CP) angle were measured on a standing lateral view, and MT5-LD angle was measured on a 30-degree medial oblique view.
Significant inter-group differences were found for TC angle (p < 0.001) and calcaneal pitch angle (p < 0.001) on lateral radiographs, and for IMA4-5 angle (p = 0.003), MT5-LD angle (p = 0.002) on AP radiographs, and for MT5-LD angle (p < 0.001) on the 30-degree medial oblique radiographs.
Fifth metatarsal stress fractures were found to be associated with elevated T-MT1 angle and CP angle representing a cavus foot and the increased curvature of fifth metatarsal. In addition, the extent of fifth metatarsal curvature on a 30-degree medial oblique view was found to be more related to the risk of fracture than on the AP view.
Background: There have been diverse results even in same Torg type of fifth metatarsal stress fractures.
Methods: Eighty-six cases with a fifth metatarsal stress fracture that were treated with modified tension band wiring from January 2003 to May 2009 were evaluated retrospectively. Each case was classified according to Torg’s classification and a new classification. Using the new proposed classification, cases were subdivided into complete fracture and incomplete fracture. The cases of incomplete fracture were subdivided based on presence or absence of plantar gap more than 1 mm. After surgery, bone union was determined by CT. Statistical analysis of the Torg classification and time for bone union as well as the proposed new classification and time for bone union was performed.
Results: There was a significant difference in the time for bone union among the three Torg types (P = 0.004). The mean time for bone union in group A (complete fracture, n = 32) was 67.5 ± 28.8, and it was 103.2 ± 47.7 for group B (incomplete fracture, n = 54). There was a significant difference in time for bone union between them (P < 0.001). The mean time for bone union in group B1 (incomplete fracture, plantar gap less than 1 mm, n = 16) was 73.9 ± 26.7, and it was 115.5 ± 45.4 for group B2 (incomplete fracture, plantar gap 1 mm or more, n = 38). There was a significant difference in time for bone union between them (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the classification incorporating the plantar gap might be used for classification of fifth metatarsal stress fractures.