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Wound healing: Total contact cast vs. custom-made temporary footwear for patients with diabetic foot ulceration.
Van De Weg FB, Van Der Windt DA, Vahl AC. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2007 Oct 13;:1-9
The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of irremovable total-contact casts (TCC) and custom-made temporary footwear (CTF) to heal neuropathic foot ulcerations in individuals with diabetes. In this prospective clinical trial, 43 patients with plantar ulcer Grade 1 or 2 (Wagner scale) were randomized to one of two off-loading modalities: TCC or CTF. Outcomes assessed were wound surface area reduction (cm(2)) and time to wound healing (days) at 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks. To evaluate safety, possible side effects were recorded at each follow-up visit. The results showed no significant difference in wound surface area reduction (adjusted for baseline wound surface) at 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks (adjusted mean difference 0.10 cm(2); 95% CI -0.92-0.72 at 16 weeks). At 16 weeks, 12 patients had a completely healed ulcer, 6 per group. The median time to healing was shorter for the patients using a cast (52 vs. 90 days, p = 0.26). Five patients with TCC and two with CTF developed device-related complications. It was concluded that: (i) the rate of wound healing is not significantly different for patients treated with CTF or TCC. The difference in wound surface area was small and not significant at any time during follow-up; and (ii) the difference in healing time (38 days) may have attained statistical significance if the numbers in these sub-groups (2x6) had been higher. Since there appears to be little difference in effectiveness between both off-loading modalities, further investigation into the benefits of CTF is warranted.
Objective: To determine the outcome of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers treated with Total Contact Cast (TCC) in terms of percentage of ulcers healed and time to heal. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi Medical and Dental College, from April 2005 to March 2007.
Methodology: The study included diabetic patients with non-ischemic neuropathic foot ulcers of upto grade 2 of Wagner's classification. Ulcers were debrided off necrotic tissues and Total Contact Cast (TCC) was applied. TCC was renewed every 2 weeks till healing. Cases were labeled as cast failure when there was no reduction in wound size in 4 consecutive weeks or worsening to a higher grade. Main outcome measures were the percentage of ulcers healed and time to heal in the cast.
Results: Thirty four (87.17%) patients were males and 5(12.82%) were females. The mean age was 62 +/- 13.05 years. All patients had NIDDM. Out of the 52 ulcers, 41(78.84%) healed with TCC in an average 2 casts duration (mean 32 days). There were 11(21.15%) cast failure. Majority (63.63%) of cast failure ulcers were located on pressure bearing area of heel. Most (90%) of the ulcers on forefoot and midsole region healed with TCC (p < 0.001). Longer ulcer duration (mean 57.45 +/- 29.64 days) significantly reduced ulcer healing (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Total contact cast was an effective treatment modality for neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers of Wagner's grade 2, located on forefoot and midsole region.