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Congenital idiopathic talipes equinovarus (ITEV), also known as clubfoot, is a well-recognized foot deformity. To date, prevalence estimates and descriptive data reported for ITEV have varied due to differences in study methodology. Using population-based surveillance data collected by the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders, we examined isolated ITEV births delivered from 1997 through 2005 and compared to live births in Iowa during the same time period. An overall prevalence was calculated for live, singleton full-term births only. Prevalence odds ratios (POR)s and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s were examined for selected infant and parental characteristics. The prevalence of isolated ITEV was 11.4 per 10,000 live, singleton full-term births (95% CI = 10.3, 12.6), with no significant variation in prevalence during the study period. Increased PORs were found for males (POR 1.8; 95% CI = 1.5, 2.3) and maternal smoking during pregnancy (POR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9); low birth weight (<2,500 g) showed an increase among females (POR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.5, 6.9) but not males (POR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.3, 2.8). Elevated, but non-significant, PORs were found for season of birth, maternal education, and trimester prenatal care was initiated; decreased PORs were found for fetal presentation, maternal race/ethnicity, parity, area of residence, and parental age at delivery. Our study of a well-defined, homogenous sample suggested that prevalence of isolated ITEV in Iowa was similar to that reported in other population-based studies and provided support for some, but not all, previously reported associations with infant and parental characteristics. More detailed, longitudinal studies of isolated ITEV are recommended.
BACKGROUND: While the congenital clubfoot deformity is a common deformity recorded in Uganda, the incidence of the condition had never been accurately determined. The objective of this study was to measure the overall incidence of congenital clubfoot deformity in a representative sample of births.
METHODS: A study of all babies born with foot anomalies took place from March 2006 to October 2007. The study was based at 8 Regional Hospitals with active maternity units and a functioning clubfoot clinic. All babies with foot deformities at birth at any of eight centres as detected by the delivery room staff were referred to the respective centre's clubfoot clinic. The children were examined by clubfoot clinic orthopedic officers who diagnosed the specific deformity. Children referred to the clinic from any source and born at the maternity unit were included in the study. The denominator was all live births at the centre during the study period.
RESULTS: The total number of live births during the study period was 110,336. The maternity units of the centres identified 290 infants with a foot deformity. One hundred and thirty infants born during the study period were diagnosed in the clubfoot clinic as having a congenital clubfoot deformity. The proportion of infants with a clubfoot deformity was 1.2 per 1000 births over the 20-month period. The male to female ratio was 2.4:1.
RECOMMENDATION: The rate of clubfoot deformities in the newborn can be used to estimate the numbers of children who should be treated and to estimate resource needs for the identification and management of this treatable congenital malformation. By comparing the number of those treated with the expected number of cases, the numbers of children with neglected clubfoot can be calculated.
Purpose of Study The management of idiopathic clubfoot has changed substantially over the past fifty years with the Ponseti method of treatment gaining increasing popularity in recent years. The advantages of this method are its simplicity and minimal resource requirements with high published success rates. One of the disadvantages is that unless treatment protocols are meticulously adhered to, especially in the bracing stage, recurrence will occur. This study explores the demographics and highlights existing barriers to successful clubfoot treatment outcomes at two academic hospitals.
Description of Methods A cross sectional study was conducted of all children undergoing clubfeet treatment between June and December 2011. A stratified questionnaire was used at two academic hospitals.
Summary of Results A total of 135 children were included, 49 (36.3%) female and 86 (63.7%) male. Over 98% of the children were born in hospital. Fifty five children, (40.8%, almost half), travelled over 30 km to attend the clinic every week. One hundred and thirteen children (83.7%) made use of public transport. Most parents (83 children, 63.7%)had secondary school education. The majority of families, 111 children (82.2%), had a combined household income of less than R2000 per month. Sixty four children (47.4%) received a child dependency grant.
Conclusion The majority of children attending these two clubfoot clinics came from households earning less than R2000 a month and almost half of them travelled more than 30 km a week to attend the clubfoot clinic. Outreach programmes and satellite clinics with properly trained staff for the management of clubfoot are desperately needed in Gauteng Province to ease the burden on the families of children with clubfeet and facilitate compliance with treatment.
Clubfoot is a common structural malformation, occurring in approximately 1/1,000 live births. Previous studies of sociodemographic and pregnancy-related risk factors have been inconsistent, with the exception of the strong male preponderance and association with primiparity. Hypotheses for clubfoot pathogenesis include fetal constraint, Mendelian-inheritance, and vascular disruption, but its etiology remains elusive. We conducted a population-based case–control study of clubfoot in North Carolina, Massachusetts, and New York from 2007 to 2011. Mothers of 677 clubfoot cases and 2,037 non-malformed controls were interviewed within 1 year of delivery about socio-demographic and reproductive factors. Cases and controls were compared for child's sex, maternal age, education, cohabitation status, race/ethnicity, state, gravidity, parity, body mass index (BMI), and these pregnancy-related conditions: oligohydramnios, breech delivery, bicornuate uterus, plural birth, early amniocentesis (<16 weeks), chorionic villous sampling (CVS), and plural gestation with fetal loss. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for state. Cases were more likely to be male (OR: 2.7; 2.2–3.3) and born to primiparous mothers (1.4; 1.2–1.7) and mothers with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (1.4; 1.1–1.8). These associations were greatest in isolated and bilateral cases. ORs for the pregnancy-related conditions ranged from 1.3 (breech delivery) to 5.6 (early amniocentesis). Positive associations with high BMI were confined to cases with a marker of fetal constraint (oligohydramnios, breech delivery, bicornuate uterus, plural birth), inheritance (family history in 1st degree relative), or vascular disruption (early amniocentesis, CVS, plural gestation with fetal loss). Pathogenetic factors associated with obesity may be in the causal pathway for clubfoot