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The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and types of injuries in 1336 young, non-professional female dancers (age 8-16 years) who participated in a descriptive mixed (cross-sectional/ longitudinal) cohort study. Previous and current injuries were diagnosed and later classified into seven major categories. Our results show that 569 (42.6%) of the dancers examined manifested an injury. Advanced age and increased exposure to dance yielded an equivalent increase in the prevalence of injured girls: from 1 of 10 girls in the 8-year-old age cohort (mean = 1.05 per 1000 h) to 1 of 3 girls in the 14-year-old age cohort (mean = 1.25 per 1000 h). Time elapsing between first and second injuries decreased with age. Among the youngest group of dancers (8-9 years) the most common injury was tendonitis (41%), while in adolescent dancers (14-16 years) knee injuries became the leading cause of complaints (33%). We conclude that young, non-professional dancers are at high risk of injury. Dancers who had been injured in the past were at higher risk for re-injury. Tendonitis in the foot or ankle joint was a common injury among the youngest dancers, while knee injuries were common among adolescent dancers. A routine screening of this dancer population by an expert in dance medicine will reduce the risk for an injury.
Background: The angle of turnout is thought to predispose professional dancers to overuse musculoskeletal injuries of the lower limb; yet, the influence of angle of turnout on foot posture is currently unknown.
Methods: Twelve professional contemporary dancers (five women and seven men; mean age, 26.8 years) were recruited. The angle of gait and angle of turnout were measured using a quasi-static clinical tracing method. Foot posture was assessed in the base of gait and angle of turnout using the Foot Posture Index. Each dancer completed a dance history and injury questionnaire.
Results: The results show a tendency toward a pronated foot posture (mean, 9°) in the angle of turnout position. A significant relationship was noted between the Foot Posture Index and angle of turnout (ρ = 0.933–0.968, P < .01) and between the number of reported injuries and change in foot posture in the angle of turnout (ρ = 0.789, P < .01) (right foot only). Twenty-eight injuries were reported; male dancers experienced a mean of 2.8 injuries and females a mean of 1.6 injuries. An inverse relationship was noted between age at training initiation and total reported injuries (r =−0.867, P < .01). All of the dancers reported a history of injury to the spine or lower limb, and 9 of the 12 reported an injury within the previous 12 months.
Conclusions: Turnout is one of the most fundamental aspects of dance technique. This study suggests a trend toward pronation in angle of turnout and a link to lower-limb musculoskeletal injury
Extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors associated with injuries in young dancers aged 8-16 years.
Steinberg N, Siev-Ner I, Peleg S, Dar G, Masharawi Y, Zeev A, Hershkovitz I. J Sports Sci. 2012 Jan 30
In the present study, we tried to determine the association between joint ranges of motion, anatomical anomalies, body structure, dance discipline, and injuries in young female recreational dancers. A group of 1336 non-professional female dancers (age 8-16 years), were screened. The risk factors considered for injuries were: range of motion, body structure, anatomical anomalies, dance technique, and dance discipline. Sixty-one different types of injuries and symptoms were identified and later classified into four major categories: knee injuries, foot or ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and non-categorized injuries. We found that 569 (42.6%) out of the 1336 screened dancers, were injured.The following factors were found to be associated with injuries (P < 0.05): (a) range of motion (e.g. dancers with hyper hip abduction are more prone to foot or ankle tendinopathies than dancers with hypo range of motion; (b) anatomical anomalies (scoliotic dancers manifested a higher rate of injuries than non-scoliotic dancers); (c) dance technique (dancers with incorrect technique of rolling-in were found to have more injuries than dancers with correct technique); (d) dance discipline (an association between time of practice en pointe and injury was observed); and (e) early age of onset of menarche decreased risk for an injury. No association between body structure and injury was found. Injuries among recreational dancers should not be overlooked, and therefore precautionary steps should be taken to reduce the risk of injury, such as screening for joint range of motion and anatomical anomalies. Certain dance positions (e.g. en pointe) should be practised only when the dancer has already acquired certain physical skills, and these practices should be time controlled
Modern (or contemporary) dance has become increasingly popular, yet little has been reported with respect to modern dance injuries and their consequences. The purpose of this study is to define the incidence, risk factors, and management of musculoskeletal injuries in professional modern dancers. A total of 184 dancers in the United States completed an anonymous 17-page questionnaire on their injuries, including extensive details regarding the two most severe injuries that had occurred in the prior 12 months. According to their self-reports, a total of 82% of the dancers had suffered between one and seven injuries. The foot and ankle (40%) was the most common site of injury, followed by the lower back (17%) and the knee (16%). The rate of injuries was 0.59 per 1,000 hours of class and rehearsal. Injured male dancers returned to full dancing after a median of 21 days, while females returned after a median of 18 days. Most dancers missed no performances due to injury. Of the medical consultations sought by dancers for their injuries, 47% were made to physicians, 41% to physical therapists, and 34% to chiropractors. The majority of dancers adhered to the advice given them by consultants (87% of males and 78% of females for the most severe injury). While the majority of injuries were considered work-related (61% of the most severe injury and 69% of the second most severe), few were covered by Workers' Compensation insurance (12% and 5% respectively). These professional modern dancers suffer from a rate of injury similar to other groups of professional dancers. Most dancers return to a partial level of dancing several weeks before attempting full-capacity dancing.
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive single-cohort study.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and severity of injuries to a professional ballet company over 1 year.
METHODS: Data for an elite-level ballet company of 52 professional dancers were collected by an in-house medical team using a time-loss injury definition.
RESULTS: A total of 355 injuries were recorded, with an overall injury incidence of 4.4 injuries per 1000 hours (female, 4.1; male, 4.8; P>.05) and a mean of 6.8 injuries per dancer (female, 6.3; male, 7.3; P>.05). Mean injury severity was 7 days (female, 4; male, 9; P<.05). Most injuries were classified as overuse (64%; female, 68%; male, 60%; P>.05); mean severity of injury was 3 days for females and 9 days for males (P<.05). The percentage of traumatic injuries was 32% for females and 40% for males (P<.05); the corresponding severity was 6 and 10 days, respectively (P<.05).
CONCLUSION: The relatively high number of injuries reported and the resulting loss of dance time support the need to introduce interventions to reduce the risk of injury in professional dancers.
The objective of this study was to assemble and synthesize the best available literature from 2004 to 2008 on musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. MEDLINE and CINAHL were the primary sources of data. Indexed terms such as dance, dancer, dancing, athletic injuries, occupational injuries, sprains and strains, musculoskeletal diseases, bone density, menstruation disturbances, and eating disorders were used to search the databases. Citations were screened for relevance using a priori criteria, and relevant studies were critically reviewed for scientific merit by the best-evidence synthesis method. After screening, 19 articles were found to be scientifically admissible. Data from accepted studies were abstracted into evidence tables relating to: prevalence and associated factors; incidence and risk factors; intervention; and injury characteristics and prognosis of musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. Principal findings included: a high prevalence and incidence of lower extremity, hip and back injuries; preliminary evidence that psychosocial and psychological issues such as stress and coping strategies affect injury frequency and duration; history of a previous lateral ankle sprain is associated with an increased risk of ankle sprain in the contralateral ankle in dance students; fatigue may play a role in ACL injury in dancers; acute hamstring strains in dancers affect tendon more than muscle tissue, often resulting in prolonged absence from dance. It is concluded that, while there are positive developments in the literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of MSK injuries and pain in dancers, much room for improvement remains. Suggestions for future research are offered.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in dancers and former dancers participating in the largest dance festival in the world
L. Grego Muniz de Araújo, H. Luiz Monteiro, C. Marcelo Pastre Science & Sports; 8 November 2012
To verify the presence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in dancers and former dancers participating in the 27th Joinville Dance Festival.
Material and methods
The research was conducted at the 27th Joinville Dance Festival in Santa Catarina, Brazil, with 173 participants in the competition, where 139 were dancers and 34 were former dancers with at least ten years of practice. In order to obtain information related to MSDs, dancers answered a specific questionnaire.
The study group consisted of adults (28 ± 9 years) with body mass index within the normal range (21.3 ± 2.3) with high weekly training time (955.7 ± 837.2) and featuring long-time experience in dancing (18 ± 7 years). The lumbar spine and knees were the most affected by MSDs. The pain of high intensity was the symptom that most often appeared in reports among survey participants.
It is important to have deeper knowledge of the prevalence of pain among professional dancers, the factors associated with pain conditions and its impact on everyday life in order to plan new forms of prevention and plan new forms of prevention and treatment within a multidisciplinary approach.
Press release: Study finds increase in dance-related injuries in children and adolescents
Dance is a beautiful form of expression, but it could be physically taxing and strenuous on the human body, particularly for children and adolescents. A new study by researchers at the Center for Injury Research and Policy of The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital examined dance-related injuries among children and adolescents 3 to 19 years of age from 1991 to 2007. During the 17-year study period, an estimated 113,000 children and adolescents were treated in U.S. emergency departments for dance-related injuries.
According to the study, which is being published in the February 2013 print issue of the Journal of Physical Activity and Health, the annual number of dance-related injuries increased 37 percent, climbing from 6,175 injuries in 1991 to 8,477 injuries in 2007. Sprains and/or strains (52 percent) were found to be the most common types of dance-related injuries, with falls (45 percent) being the most common causes of injuries.
The study also found that 4 out of 10 injured dancers were between 15 and 19 years of age.
"We believe this could be due to adolescent dancers getting more advanced in their skills, becoming more progressed in their careers and spending more time training and practicing," said Kristin Roberts MS, MPH, lead author of the study and senior research associate at the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children's Hospital. "We encourage children to keep dancing and exercising. But it is important that dancers and their instructors take precautions to avoid sustaining injuries."
"Safety precautions such as staying well-hydrated, properly warming up and cooling down, concentrating on the proper technique and getting plenty of rest can help prevent dance-related injuries," said the study's senior author Lara McKenzie, PhD, principal investigator at the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children's and also a faculty member at The Ohio State University College of Medicine.
The Sports Medicine experts at Nationwide Children's treat the types of injuries seen in performing arts and dance athletes. Due to the increase in the number of dance-related injuries seen during the last few years, they have designed a number of services to address the needs of the young dancer.
"Adolescents are still growing into their bodies and as such often develop imbalances that can lead to injury," said Eric Leighton, ATC, an athletic trainer in Sports Medicine at Nationwide Children's. "It's critical that intervention and injury prevention be made available to them to address balance, strength and functional body control deficits as they grow. From pointe readiness screens to injury prevention programming, our team has a comprehensive approach to address the needs of these athletes."
This is the first study to use a nationally representative sample to examine dance-related injuries that were treated in U.S. emergency departments. Data for this study were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), which is operated by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. The NEISS provides information on consumer product-related and sports and recreation-related injuries treated in hospital emergency departments across the country.