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Surgery is frequently considered an option for refractory, symptomatic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy. Gastrocnemius equinus can result in mechanical overload of the Achilles tendon and may be a factor in its etiology. Our hypothesis was that reducing load transmission to the Achilles tendon by gastrocnemius lengthening (Strayer procedure) may be an effective treatment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A prospective case series of all patients with a minimum 1-year symptomatic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy who underwent gastrocnemius lengthening was evaluated before surgery, and at 1 and 2 years after surgery. There were 14 patients (17 tendons).
One year after surgery, the median American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot score was 100 points, as compared to 71 points preoperatively (p < 0.001). The median total Foot Function Index (FFI) decreased significantly from 39 to 12 points at 1 year (p < 0.001) and remained stable (12 points) at 2 years. An electronic goniometer recorded a mean gain in ankle dorsiflexion of 13 degrees. At 1 year after surgery the MRI in all eight patients (ten tendons) with a preoperative MRI demonstrated a decrease in signal hyperintensity and tendon size, signifying an improvement of the tendinopathy. At 2 years after surgery, patient satisfaction assessment revealed that all but one patient was satisfied with the result and 11 of the 14 (79%) patients were able to resume their previous sporting activities. There were no complications.
Gastrocnemius lengthening was an effective treatment for chronic Achilles noninsertional tendinopathy. Two-year results show good to excellent clinical outcome.
This is a prospective analysis on 30 physically active individuals with a mean age of 48.9 years (35 to 64) with chronic insertional tendinopathy of the tendo Achillis. Using a transverse incision, the tendon was debrided and an osteotomy of the posterosuperior corner of the calcaneus was performed in all patients. At a minimum post-operative follow-up of three years, the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment scale – Achilles tendon scores were significantly improved compared to the baseline status. In two patients a superficial infection of the wound developed which resolved on antibiotics. There were no other wound complications, no nerve related complications, and no secondary avulsions of the tendo Achillis. In all, 26 patients had returned to their pre-injury level of activity and the remaining four modified their sporting activity. At the last appointment, the mean pain threshold and the mean post-operative tenderness were also significantly improved from the baseline (p < 0.001). In patients with insertional tendo Achillis a transverse incision allows a wide exposure and adequate debridement of the tendo Achillis insertion, less soft-tissue injury from aggressive retraction and a safe osteotomy of the posterosuperior corner of the calcaneum.
Treatment of Chronic Noninsertional Achilles Tendinopathy With Endoscopic Achilles Tendon Debridement and Flexor Hallucis Longus Transfer
Tun Hing Lui
Foot Ankle Spec March 5, 2012
Decompression with debridement has been shown to be effective in pain management in patients with chronic mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy; however, augmentation with the flexor hallucis longus tendon can provide additional mechanical support. The technique of endoscopic debridement of the tendinopathic tendon together with flexor hallucis longus transfer is described to treat patients suffering from chronic painful noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy with the potential advantage of minimally invasive surgery.
The mainstay of treatment for non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy is non-operative, however a proportion of patients will fail conservative measures. We describe the results of Achilles tendinoscopy with plantaris tendon release in patients who have failed first line conservative treatment for at least 6 months.
A consecutive series of 11 patients with a minimum of 2 years follow up.
The mean AOFAS scores significantly improved from 68 pre-op to 92 post op (p = 0.0002) as did the AOS scores for both pain (28% pre-op to 8% post op (p = 0.0004)) and disability (38% pre-op to 10% post op (p = 0.0005). The mean SF-36 scores also improved but were not statistically significant (pre-op 76, post op 87 (p = 0.059). There were no complications. 8 of the 11 patients were satisfied, the other 3 somewhat satisfied.
The results of Achilles tendinoscopy and division of the plantaris tendon are encouraging but further studies are required to compare it to other treatments. It is minimally invasive and low risk so should not affect the ability to perform a formal open procedure if unsuccessful.
Achilles tendinopathy is a clinical diagnosis characterized as a triad of symptoms including pain, swelling, and impaired performance of the diseased tendon. Achilles tendinopathy is divided into Achilles tendonitis and tendinosis based on histopathological examination. Achilles tendinosis is viewed microscopically as disorganized collagen, abnormal neovascularization, necrosis, and mucoid degeneration. Insertional Achilles tendinosis is a degenerative process of the tendon at the junction of the tendon and calcaneus. This disease is initially treated conservatively with activity modification, custom orthotic devices, heel lifts, and immobilization. After 3 to 6 months of conservative therapy has failed to alleviate symptoms, surgical management is indicated. Surgical management of insertional Achilles tendinosis includes Achilles tendon debridement, calcaneal exostosis ostectomy, and retrocalcaneal bursa excision. In this case series, we present 4 patients who underwent surgical management of insertional Achilles tendinosis with complete tendon detachment. All patients underwent reattachment of the Achilles tendon with the suture bridge technique. The Arthrex SutureBridge® (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL) device uses a series of 4 suture anchors and FiberWire® (Arthrex Inc.) to reattach the Achilles tendon to its calcaneal insertion. This hourglass pattern of FiberWire® provides a greater area of tendon compression, consequently allowing greater stability and possible earlier return to weight-bearing activities. The patients were followed up for approximately 2 years’ duration. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. At final follow-up there was no evidence of Achilles tendon ruptures or device failures. All patients were able to return to their activities of daily living without the use of assistive devices. The patients’ average visual analog pain scale was 1 (range 0 to 4), and their average foot functional index score was 3.41 (range 0 to 10.71). The suture bridge technique is a viable option for Achilles tendon repair after surgical management of insertional Achilles tendinosis.
Background: In the operative treatment of Achilles insertional tendinopathy, no guidelines exist concerning which form of fixation of the Achilles tendon insertion is superior.
Hypothesis: Transcalcaneal drill pin passage does not place any major plantar structures at risk, and the addition of a Krackow stitch and suture button to the fixation technique provides a significant increase in ultimate load to failure in Achilles tendon insertional repairs.
Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.
Methods: The Achilles tendon insertions in 6 fresh-frozen cadaveric ankles were detached, and transcalcaneal drill pins were passed. Plantar dissection took place to evaluate the drill pin relationship to the plantar fascia, lateral plantar nerve and artery, flexor digitorum longus tendon, and master knot of Henry. The Achilles tendons were then repaired with a double-row suture anchor construct alone or with a suture button and Krackow stitch added to the double-row suture anchor construct. The repairs were then tested to maximum load to failure at 20 mm/min. The mode of failure was recorded, and the mean maximum load to failure was assessed using the Student t test for distributions with equal variance.
Results: Transcalcaneal drill pin passage did not place any selected anatomic structures at risk. The mean maximum load to failure for the suture bridge group was 239.2 N; it was 391.4 N for the group with the suture button (P = .014). The lateral plantar artery was the structure placed at greatest risk from drill pin placement, with a mean distance of 22.7 mm (range, 16.5-29.2 mm) between the pin and artery.
Conclusion: In this laboratory study, transcalcaneal drill pin passage appeared to be anatomically safe, and the use of suture button technology with a Krackow stitch for Achilles tendon insertional repair significantly increased repair strength.
Clinical Relevance: Achilles tendon insertional repair with suture button fixation and a Krackow stitch may facilitate the earlier institution of postoperative rehabilitation and improve clinical outcomes.
Surgery for recalcitrant insertional Achilles tendinopathy often consists of partial or total release of the insertion site, debridement of the diseased portion of the tendon, calcaneal ostectomy, and reattachment of the Achilles to the calcaneus. Although single-row and double-row techniques exist for repair of the detached Achilles tendon, biomechanical data are lacking to support one technique over the other. Based on data extrapolated from the study of rotator cuff repairs, we hypothesized that a double-row construct would provide superior fixation strength over a single-row repair. Eighteen human cadaveric Achilles tendons (9 matched pairs) with attached calcanei were repaired with single-row or double-row techniques. Specimens were mounted in a servohydraulic materials testing machine, subjected to a preconditioning cycle, and loaded to failure. Failure was defined as suture breakage or pullout, midsubstance tendon rupture, or anchor pullout. Among the failures were 12 suture failures, 5 proximal-row anchor failures, and 1 distal-row anchor failure. No midsubstance tendon ruptures or testing apparatus failures were observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the peak load to failure between the single-row and double-row repairs (p = .46). Similarly, no significant differences were observed with regards to mean energy expenditure to failure (p = .069). The present study demonstrated no biomechanical advantages of the double-row repair over a single-row repair. Despite the lack of a clear biomechanical advantage, there may exist clinical advantages of a double-row repair, such as reduction in knot prominence and restoration of the Achilles footprint.
Treatment of midportion Achilles tendinopathy has been known to be difficult. Recent ultrasound(US) and Doppler(CD) findings (high blood flow outside ventral tendon), together with results of immuno-histochemical analyses (marked presence of blood vessels accompanied by nerve fascicles in the ventral peritendinous tissue) have led to new treatment approaches like sclerosing polidocanol injections, where US and CD-guided injections in the region with high blood flow and nerves outside the tendon have shown good results. However, for satisfying pain relief multiple injection treatments were often needed. Therefore, based on the same principles as for the sclerosing injections, a more radical and one stage mini-surgical procedure has been invented.
107 patients (66 men, 41 women), mean age 43 years (range 24-77), with tendinosis in 125 Achilles tendons were, in local anaesthesia, treated with a US+CD-guided new surgical approach outside the ventral tendon. Pain during tendon loading activity (VAS) and satisfaction with treatment, were evaluated.
Before surgery, the mean VAS was 77. After surgery (follow up mean 18 months, range 6-33) the mean VAS was 2 in 111 tendons (89%) from satisfied patients back in full Achilles tendon loading activity.
US+CD-guided scraping/tenolysis in the region with rich vascularity and innervation outside the ventral tendon show good short term clinical results in midportion Achilles tendinopathy.
Introduction Chronic Achilles tendinopathy is a common overuse injury. There are several modalities of treatment, reflecting difficulties in its management. In particular, due to the well-recognised morbidity associated with surgical decompression, treatment has steered towards a less invasive route.
Dry needling has been efficacious in managing other tendinopathies. This study therefore assessed dry needling and percutaneous hydrostatic decompression of the Achilles tendon as a novel treatment for this condition.
Methods Twenty-two patients with 27 sonographically-confirmed chronic Achilles tendinopathy were prospectively enrolled. All were symptomatic for >6 months and have failed alternative conservative treatments.
Ultrasound-guided dry needling of neovascular areas and paratenon hydrostatic decompression was performed by a dedicated musculoskeletal radiologist on a 6-weekly basis until symptomatic resolution or no improvement was evident. Sonographic assessment of the tendon's thickness and neovascularity was undertaken. Following treatment, a standardized physiotherapy regime was adopted. At baseline and 6 weeks post-final procedure, visual analogue scores (VAS) at rest and during activity were obtained. Telephonic interviews were carried out 12 and 24 months post-treatment.
Results 24 tendons (in 19 patients) were successfully treated - 1 patient had spontaneous symptomatic resolution and 2 progressed to surgical intervention. The mean number of treatment sessions was 2. There was no significant change in neovascularity or tendon thickness after treatment.
Therapeutic intervention led to a significant improvement in VAS at rest (42 v 18.4, p=0.0005) and during activity (74 v 33.7, p< 0.0001). At 12 months, 77% of patients were >80% satisfied with their outcome of the procedure, with 85% of patients able to return to their sporting interests. At 24 months, 90% of patients were >80% satisfied with their outcome, with nearly half having complete symptomatic resolution.
Conclusion Dry needling and percutaneous paratenon decompression under ultrasound guidance shows promise as an alternative treatment for this chronic condition.
Background Bilateral midportion Achilles tendinopathy/tendinosis is not unusual, and treatment of both sides is often carried out. Experiments in animals suggest of the potential involvement of central neuronal mechanisms in Achilles tendinosis.
Objectives To evaluate the outcome of surgery for Achilles tendinopathy.
Methods This observational study included 13 patients (7 men and 6 women, mean age 53 years) with a long duration (6–120 months) of chronic painful bilateral midportion Achilles tendinopathy. The most painful side at the time for investigation was selected to be operated on first. Treatment was ultrasound-guided and Doppler-guided scraping procedure outside the ventral part of the tendon under local anaesthetic. The patients started walking on the first day after surgery. Follow-ups were conducted and the primary outcome was pain by visual analogue scale. In an additional part of the study, specimens from Achilles and plantaris tendons in three patients with bilateral Achilles tendinosis were examined.
Results Short-term follow-ups showed postoperative improvement on the non-operated side as well as the operated side in 11 of 13 patients. Final follow-up after 37 (mean) months showed significant pain relief and patient satisfaction on both sides for these 11 patients. In 2 of 13 patients operation on the other, initially non-operated side, was instituted due to persisting pain. Morphologically, it was found that there were similar morphological effects, and immunohistochemical patterns of enzyme involved in signal substance production, bilaterally.
Conclusion Unilateral treatment with a scraping operation can have benefits contralaterally; the clinical implication is that unilateral surgery may be a logical first treatment in cases of bilateral Achilles tendinopathy.
In patients with Achilles tendinosis, Achilles tendon debridement can be supplemented with flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer. Outcomes have not been studied prospectively in older, sedentary, and overweight patients.
Fifty-eight consecutive limbs in fifty-six consecutive older, sedentary patients with insertional or midsubstance Achilles tendinosis were enrolled prospectively and underwent the procedure. Ten patients were lost to follow-up, leaving forty-eight limbs in forty-six patients available for evaluation after twenty-four months.
The forty-six patients who were included in the study had an average age of 54 ± 10 years with an average body mass index of 33.8 ± 6.8 kg/m2. Significant improvement was observed between baseline and twenty-four months in terms of the visual analog scale for overall pain intensity (6.7 ± 2.3 versus 0.8 ± 2.0; p < 0.001), the Short Form-36 physical score (34.3 ± 8.0 versus 49.0 ± 9.3; p < 0.001), the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale pain (54.4 ± 19.2 versus 1.9 ± 2.7; p < 0.001) and dysfunction (62.6 ± 21.4 versus 11.0 ± 24.2; p < 0.001) subscale scores, and performance of a single-leg heel rise (1.9 ± 3.0 versus 7.3 ± 2.7 cm; p < 0.001). Significant improvement compared with baseline was observed at three or six months except in the single-leg heel rise. Improvements in terms of pain and function occurred over twenty-four months, with the most improvement occurring in the first twelve months. At twenty-four months, maximum gastrocnemius circumference was significantly less in the involved compared with the uninvolved leg (40.2 ± 5.1 versus 41.2 ± 4.8 cm; p < 0.001). The mean passive range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint decreased from 85.1° ± 25.3° preoperatively to 68.1° ± 36.7° (a 20% change) at six months (p = 0.03). Most patients reported no hallux weakness (57%; twenty-six of forty-six patients) and no loss of balance due to hallux weakness (76%; thirty-five of forty-six patients). Postoperative peroneal tendinitis was observed in seven patients. Complications included deep-vein thrombosis (two patients), superficial infection or delayed wound-healing (six), scar pain (four), and early disruption of the reconstruction due to a fall (one).
Surgical debridement of the Achilles tendon with flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer was associated with significant improvement in terms of Achilles tendon function, physical function, and pain intensity in a group of relatively inactive, older, overweight patients. When present, hallux weakness had minimal functional sequelae.
Intermediate and Long-Term Outcomes of the Suture Bridge Technique for the Management of Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy
Robert M. Greenhagen, Andrew B. Shinabarger, Kyle T. Pearson, Patrick R. Burns Foot Ankle Spec January 24, 2013
Introduction. Insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a problem frequently encountered by the foot and ankle surgeon. Conservative care yields mixed results, and this condition is often treated surgically. Our hypothesis is that the suture bridge technique through a central posterior incision allows adequate visualization for thorough debridement and exostectomy and provides a stable tendon-to-bone interface for healing. Material and Methods. The medical records of 35 patients who underwent surgical treatment for insertional Achilles tendinopathy with the suture bridge technique, by a single surgeon, between 2006 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot instruments as well as a subjective questionnaire were utilized. Results. In all, 30 individuals who met the inclusion criteria for the treatment of insertional Achilles tendinopathy were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 28.93 ± 16.99 months. We included 10 men and 20 women, with a mean age of 49.1 ± 9.2 years. The mean preoperative AOFAS score was 56.6 ± 14.0. The average postoperative AOFAS score significantly increased to 91.7 ± 10.4 (P < .0001). One participant required revisional surgery, consisting of a flexor hallucis longus transfer performed by another physician. There were no wound complications or infections. Overall, there was a 97% (28/29) satisfaction rate. Conclusion. The central incision with complete detachment of the Achilles tendon and reattachment with the suture bridge technique for the treatment of insertional Achilles tendinopathy provides an effective treatment with good to excellent clinical outcomes in 97% of patients, with a mean follow-up of 29 months.
Gastrocnemius Recession for Chronic Noninsertional Achilles Tendinopathy.
Kiewiet NJ, Holthusen SM, Bohay DR, Anderson JG. Foot Ankle Int. 2013 Feb 11.
Background:In patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy, several operative techniques have been described for treatment. A case report has shown that gastrocnemius recession as treatment can normalize MRI findings and relieve clinical symptoms consistent with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. The purpose of this study was to present the results of the treatment of chronic Achilles tendinopathy with gastrocnemius recession.
Methods:Of 12 patients, 8 (7 females, 1 male) who underwent gastrocnemius recession for refractory Achilles tendinopathy between July 2004 and January 2009 were available for follow-up. All patients filled out a SF-36 health survey, a foot function index, an AOFAS ankle and hindfoot scale, and a simple survey formulated by our group of investigators. Of the 8 patients, 7 were available to return for clinical assessment. Patients had an average age of 49.9 years (SD = 11.6) at the time of surgery and average time of follow-up was 34.6 months (SD = 18.1).
Results:The mean pain score (VAS 0-10 scale) significantly decreased from 7.3 (SD = 1.7) preoperatively to 1 (SD = 1.8) postoperatively at the time of follow-up (P < .001). The mean AOFAS ankle and hindfoot score was 94.4 (SD = 9.8), which was significantly improved when compared with previously published scores for patients who underwent Achilles debridement with FHL transfer (P = .007). All 8 categories on the SF-36 health survey showed no significant difference with published data for US population values and previously published data for patients who underwent FHL transfer.
Conclusion:Gastrocnemius recession for the treatment of refractory Achilles tendinopathy was a viable treatment option following the failure of nonoperative management. All 8 of our patients had excellent pain relief, good clinical outcome, and were satisfied at the time of follow-up.
Background Most patients with Achilles tendinopathy (AT) are treated successfully with physiotherapy ie eccentric calf training. In some patients gastrocnemius contracture persists. Three other publications have reported improvement in AT following gastrocnemius release, but this is the first series of patients to have proximal medial gastrocnemius release (PMGR) for AT. The purpose of this study was to review patients with refractory non-insertional and insertional AT treated by PMGR with a minimum followup of 18 months.
Method Sixteen PMGRs were performed over a two year period. Nine patients (10 PMGRs) were available for followup. The mean age of patients was 45 (Range, 25 to 63) years, with five female and four male subjects. The average followup period was 2.5 (range, 1.7 to 3.3) years. The sample was divided into non-insertional and insertional tendinopathy, with five PMGRs per group. Outcome measures were VAS scores, VISA-A scores, AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score and overall satisfaction. Complications and further procedures were also recorded.
Results At an average of 2.5 years follow-up, two-thirds of patients were highly satisfied. The non-insertional tendinopathy group enjoyed better results than the insertional group: mean improvement in VISA-A scores were 59% (non-insertional) vs 22% (insertional); mean AOFAS scores improved by 29% (non-insertional) vs 15% (insertional). The improvement in the non-insertional group was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in all three outcome measures. Our findings further support that insertional tendinopathy is more resistant to calf stretching/lengthening treatments.
Conclusion In contrast to open or percutaneous debridement of the Achilles tendon, PMGR is a day surgical procedure that is well tolerated with excellent wound healing. Patients with non-insertional tendinopathy who have failed conservative treatment can expect significant improvement with VISA-A scores normalising after the procedure. We recommend PMGR for patients suffering recalcitrant non-insertional AT in whom gastrocnemius contracture persists despite an eccentric stretching program.
Surgery has long been established as a valid alternative for chronic Achilles tendinopathies that have failed conservative treatment. Endoscopic procedures have shown satisfactory preliminary results for managing such injuries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes of endoscopic surgery in patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. We evaluated 27 endoscopic procedures in 24 patients (mean age 45.5 ± 8.9 years; 12 males and 12 females) with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and at least 5 (mean 7.7, range 5 to 14) years of follow-up. All ambulatory procedures consisted of paratenon debridement and longitudinal tenotomies. The clinical evaluation included 2 specific functional rating systems (the Achilles Tendon Scoring System and the Victorian Institute Sport Assessment-Achilles questionnaire) and a pain visual analog scale. Patient satisfaction with the procedure was assessed using a patient global assessment response to therapy Likert scale score. All patients had an improved clinical outcome at the final follow-up visit. Both scoring systems showed significant improvement in all clinical outcomes at the last follow-up visit. The Victorian Institute Sport Assessment-Achilles questionnaire score had improved from 37.0 ± 4.9 points preoperatively to 97.5 ± 12.1 points postoperatively (p = .0006). The Achilles Tendon Scoring System score had improved from 32.6 ± 13.1 points preoperatively to 97.2 ± 12.3 points postoperatively (p = .000006). The pain visual analog scale score averaged 0.2 ± 1.1, and the patient global assessment response to therapy score was 0.25 ± 0.71. The percentage of patients with an excellent patient global assessment response to therapy score was 85.1%. Two postoperative problems were reported (7.4%): a delayed keloid lesion and a seroma with chronic fistula. The infection rate and systemic complication rate were 0%. In conclusion, endoscopic surgery provided a high rate of excellent long-term results in patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Debridement of the paratenon and crural fascia, along with longitudinal tenotomies, using a minimally invasive procedure provided completely resolution of symptoms at 7 years postoperatively in 96% of patients in the present consecutive series.
Biomechanical Properties of Double- and Single-Row Suture Anchor Repair for Surgical Treatment of Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy.
Beitzel K, Mazzocca AD, Obopilwe E, Boyle JW, McWilliam J, Rincon L, Dhar Y, Arciero RA, Amendola A. Am J Sports Med. 2013 May 3.
BACKGROUND:Because of intratendinous ossifications, retrocalcaneal bursitis, or intratendinous necrosis commonly found in insertional tendinosis, it is often necessary to detach the tendon partially or entirely from its tendon-to-bone junction. HYPOTHESISouble-row repair for insertional Achilles tendinopathy will generate an increased contact area and demonstrate higher biomechanical stability. STUDY DESIGN:Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:Eighteen cadaver Achilles tendons were split longitudinally and detached, exposing the calcaneus; an ostectomy was performed and the tendon was reattached to the calcaneus in 1 of 2 ways: 2 suture anchors (single row) or a 4-anchor (double row) construct. Footprint area measurements over time, displacement after cyclic loading (2000 cycles), and final load to failure were measured. RESULTS:The double-row refixation technique was statistically superior to the single-row technique in footprint area measurement initially and 5 minutes after repair (P = .009 and P = .01, respectively) but not after 24 hours (P = .713). The double-row construct demonstrated significantly improved measures for peak load (433.9 ± 84.3 N vs 212.0 ± 49.7 N; P = .042), load at yield (354.7 ± 106.2 N vs 198.7 ± 39.5 N; P = .01), and slope (51.8 ± 9.9 N/mm vs 66.7 ± 16.2 N/mm; P = .021). Cyclic loading did not demonstrate significant differences between the 2 constructs. CONCLUSIONouble-row construct for reinsertion of a completely detached Achilles tendon using proximal and distal rows resulted in significantly larger contact area initially and 5 minutes after repair and led to significantly higher peak load to failure on destructive testing. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:In treatment for insertional Achilles tendinosis, the tendon often has to be detached and anatomically reattached to its insertion at the calcaneus. To our knowledge there is a lack of biomechanical studies supporting either a number or a pattern of suture anchor fixation. Because the stresses going across the insertion site of the Achilles tendon are significant during rehabilitation and weightbearing activities, it is imperative to have a strong construct that allows satisfactory healing during the early postoperative process.